Ms Adiam Teferra, EPDP Executive Committee member in charge of Women's Affairs Office, addressed on 7 April 2018 a conference of the Eritrean Lowland League (ELL) held in Cologne, Germany, in commemoration of the 4th year of the founding of the civic association which includes members mainly from the western lowlands of Eritrea, and focuses on the problems of this vital region of the country.


Seizing the opportunity of making a presentation at the event, the EPDP leadership member recounted the endless sufferings of the Eritrean people in the past several decades and informed the conference of how her party looks at what is to be done to in the uphill struggle awaiting all Eritreans in building a better common homeland. In doing this, Ms Adiam Teferra explained the contents of the 4 June 2017 EPDP proposal for joint action springing from four basic principles which are: a) Protecting Eritrea's territorial sovereignty; b) Removing the autocratic  PFDJ regime with its organs of repression; c) Installing a democratic multiparty system of participatory governance; and d) everybody submitting to rule of law, and guaranteeing basic liberties and democratic rights.

Attending the meeting were invited representatives of political and civic associations, national figures and a good number of young Eritreans from the region. Following an opening statement by ELL chairman, Mr. Ahmed Adem, on the covenant of the association, Ms Aisha Gaas moderated the presentations of panellists and the discussions which were focused on the ELL document (The Covenant) and visions expressed by the panellists.

The UK-based Eritrean National Dialogue Forum in cooperation with the Eritrean Information Center organized a conference in London between 7 and 8 April 2018 under the slogan, "Political discourse and joint action for a coherent society". Attending the conference were representatives of Eritrean political and civil organizations, national figures and media activists. The conference was opened by a solemn moment of silence in honour of Eritrean martyrs followed by a short introductory speech by the organizers.

The secretariat of the conference, chaired by Mr. Abdurahman Sayyid (Bohashem), included Messrs Negash Osman and Amanauel Beraki. Arabic/Triginya Translations were made by the secretariat assisted by Messrs Ahmed Negash and Suleiman Saeed.

The following papersf were presented by panelists:

1.   The vision of the Eritrean People's Democratic Party (EPDP) in trust building and promoting joint action by opposition organizations presented by Menghesteab Asmerom;

2.   Eritrean opposition organizations: between unity aspirations for joint action and the challenges of internal shortcomings and outside interventions as presented by Beshir Ishak;

3.   The theme of people's democratic movement was presented by Abdurazaq Mohammed Mussa.

MA on Podium 2

EPDP Chairman Menghesteab Asmerom spoke in great detail about the cause of mistrust and the possible ways of overcoming them. He also dwelt on explaining the EPDP proposal of 4 June 2017 for joint action by adhering to  basic principles listed below:

1. Protecting Eritrea's territorial sovereignty;

2. Removing the autocratic  PFDJ regime with its organs of repression;

3. Installing a democratic multiparty system of participatory governance;

4. Submitting to rule of law and guaranteeing basic liberties and democratic rights.

The EPDP Chairman further clarified that the  spheres identified for joint action can be executed by organs staffed by people selected on merit basis from participant organizations and experts from outside them.

On his part, Mr. Beshir Ishak spoke on the complimentary roles of political and civil organizations and that diversity is not a problem as such although how to manage it is not well addressed in the Eritrean arena. He also warned about the hasty creation of coalitions that do not last long. He listed the main shortcomings as follows:

1.  Lack of clear understanding of political power;

2. Absence of a clear strategy;

3. No clear message conveyed to our people at home and abroad;

4. The negative consequences of dependence on noon-Eritrean sources;

5. The difficulty of conducting a struggle away from home.


Finally, the highly educative and innovative presentation of the third panelist, Mr. Abdurazaq Mohammed Mussa, absorbed the attention of everyone in the conference. He  stressed on the importance of enabling the people to be the real actors and not expectants of results from the action by others. He said what is important is a guiding vision and not the ongoing tags-of-war over who will lead the organizations. He emphasized the importance of identifying the shortcomings, and that shortcoming have to be identified independent organs and not by those in executive positions.

Mr. Abdurazaq M. Mussa did not gloss over the fact that mistrusts in the organizations and the society will persist as long as the formal programs and positions are undermined by informal mobilizations.

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After extended discussions, it was agreed that a joint statement of the will be issued.

In his concluding note, Mr. Omer Zerai, chairman of the organizing committee thanks all participants and confirmed that the conference was funded only by the organizers.

Omer Zerom

The EPDP Chairman recommended that the statement of Mr. Abdurazaq Mohammed Mussa be translated in two languages for wider distribution.

Mr. Menghesteab Asmerom told the EPDP Information Office that he was fully satisfied with the outcome of the conference at which the EPDP vision and proposal for joint action was highly appreciated. He alos had a short interivew with the Arabic TV channel of Eritrean Information Center. Also attending the conference were Mr. Amanuel Beraki, EPDP Central Council member, and Mr. Goitom Mebrahtu, chairman of the UK branch of EPDP.

ማሕበር ምትሕብባር መታሕት ኤርትራ ብ7 ማዝያ 2018 ኣብ ከተማ ከለን ሃገረ ጀርመን ዝኽሪ ምምስራት ራበዓይ ዓመቱ ጸንቢሉ። ኣብዚ ጽንብል ናይቲ ምትሕብባር ኣቦመንበር ኣቶ ኣሕመድ ኣደም ብዛዕባ’ቲ ናይ ምትሕብባሮም ራኢ ዝገልጽ “ማሕበራዊ ውዕል” ሰፊሕ መብርሂ ሂቦም።

ኣብቲ ብኣወሃሃድነት ወይዘሮ ዓሻ ገዓስ ዝተመርሐ መድረኽ፡ ዝተዓደሙ ወከልቲ ውድባትን ሰልፍታትን ኤርትራን ከምኡ እውን ግዱሳትን ምሁራትን ኤርትራውያን ባእታታን ብዛዕባቲ ዝቐረበ፡ ሰነድ ማሕበራዊ ውዕል ርኢቶ ኣብ ርእሲ ምሃቦም፡ ነናይ ውድባቶምን ሰልፍታቶምን ርኢቶ ኣቕሪቦም።

ኣብዚ መንእሰያት ዝርከብዎም ብዙሓት ዝተሳተፍዎ መድረኽ፡ ንሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ (ሰዲህኤ) ወኪላ ዝተሳተፈት ወይዘሮ ኣድያም ተፈራ፡ ሓላፊት ቤት ጽሕፈት ጉዳይ ደቂ ኣንስትዮ ሰዲህኤ፡ ኣብ ዘስመዓቶ መደረ ካብ ነዊሕ ግዜ ጀሚሩ ከምዚ እዩ ኢልካ ክትገልጸ ዘጸግም ኣብ ልዕሊ ህዝብና ክፍጽሞ ዝጸንሐ በደላት ብሰፊሑ ኣቃሊዓ። ኣተሓሒዛ ድማ ብዛዕባቲ ኣብዚ እዋንዚ ሰዲህኤ ከም መዋጽኦ ካብዚ ዝረአ ዘሎ ዘይውሁድ ኣካይዳ ውድባት ኤርትራ ንምውጻእ፡ ይሰርሓሉ ብዛዕባ ዘሎ ኣርባዕተ ነጥብታትን ሰለስተ ናይ ምምትሕብባር መዳያትን ዝሓቖፈን ናይ ብዙሓት ወገናት ደገፍ ዝረክብ ዘሎን “እማመ ዘተ ሓባራዊ ስረሓት ፖለቲካዊ ውድባት ኤርትራ” ብሰፊሑ ኣብሪሃ።

ካብ 7-8 ሚያዝያ 2018 “ፖለቲካው ልዝብን ሓባራዊ ዕዮን ምእንቲ ስጡም ሕብረተ-ሰብ” ኣብ ትሕቲ ዝብል ጭርሖ፡ ኣብ ከተማ ለንደን፡ ዓባይ ብሪጣንያ፡ ብምትሕብባር ኤርትራዊ ሃገራዊ ናይ ዘተ ፎረም”ን ኤርትራዊ ማእከል ዜናን እተዳለወ ዋዕላ ተኻይዱ። ኣብ’ዚ ዋዕላ’ዚ ብርክት ዝበሉ ወከልቲ ተቓወምቲ ውድባት ኤርትራ፡ ወከልቲ ሲቪላውያን ማሕበራት፡ ኣገደስቲ ሃገራውያን ባእታታትን ናይ ዜና ማዕከናትን ተኻፊሎም ነይሮም። ኣኼባ ብዝኽሪ ሰማእታትን ሓጺር መእተዊ ናይ ኣዳለውቲ ዋዕላን ኢዩ ተጀሚሩ።

እቲ ዋዕላ ብኣቦ መንበርነት ሓው ዓብዱልራሕማን ሰይድ እትምራሕን ሓው ነጋሽ ዑስማንን ሓው ኣማኒኤል በራኽን ዝርከብዋ ሰክረታርያን ኢዩ ተማእኪሉ። ኣብ ምትግርጓም ዝተሓባበሩ ኣሕዋት ነጋሽ ዑስማን፡ ኣሕመድ ነጋሽ፡ ዓብዱራሕማን ሰይድን ሱሌማን ኣደምን ድማ ምስጋና ይግብኦም ኢዩ።

ኣብ ዋዕላ ዝቐረቡ ወረቓቕቲ ከኣ እዞም ዝስዕቡ ኢዮም

1.   ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ዘለዎ ራእይ ኣብ ምህናጽ ሕድሕድ ምትእምማንን እማመ ንሓባራዊ ዕዮ ተቓወምቲ ሓይልታትን (ብመንግስተኣብ ኣስመሮም)፤

2.   ተቓውሞ ሃገራዊ ሓይልታት ኤርትራ ኣብ መንጐ ባህጊ ንሓድነትን ሓባራዊ ዕዮን ኣብ መንጐ ብድሆታት ባዕላዊ ሕጽረትን ናይ ግዳም ኣጀንታታትን (ብበሺር ኢሽሓቕ)

3.   ህዝባዊ ዲሞክራስያዊ ምንቅስቓስ (ብዓብደልረዛቕ መሓመድ ሙሳ)

MA on Podium 2

ሓው መንግስተኣብ ኣስመሮም፡ ኣቦ መንበር ሰዲህኤ፡ ንኣዳለውቲ ዋዕላ ድሕሪ ምምስጋን፡ ጠንቅታት ናይ ዘይምትእምማን መንፈስን ከመይነት ምውጋዶምን ዝብል ቴማ ብሰፊሑ ኣቕሪቡ። ቀኢሉ፡ ነቲ ሰዲህኤ ኣቕሪብዎ ዘሎ ኵሎም ተቓወምቲ ክፈላለየሉ ዘይብሎምን ብሓባር ንኽሰርሑ ዘኽእሎምን ዝብሎም 4 ነጥብታት ብዝርዝር ገሊጹ። ንሳቶም ከኣ፡-

1. ምዕቃብ ልኡላዊ ግዝኣት ኤርትራ፣

2. ምውዳቕ ዲክታቶርያዊ ስርዓት ህግደፍን ምልጋስ ጨቋኒ መሓውራቱን፣

3. ድሕሪ ውድቐት ስርዓት ህግደፍ ኣብዝሓ ሰልፋዊ ስርዓት ዝሰረቱ ህዝባዊ ዲሞክራስያዊ ስርዓት ምቛም፣

4. ግዝኣተ ሕግን ዲሞክራስያዊ መሰላትን መላእ ሓርነታትን ህዝቢ ምቕባል፣ ዝብሉ ኢዮም ኢሉ።

ነዞም ዕላማታት እዚኣቶም ኣብ ግብሪ ንምውዓል ብክእለቶም ዝልለዩን ኵሉ ዝዓግበሎምን ኣባላት ተቓወምቲ ውድባትን ወጻኢ ካብ ውድባት ኰይኖም ንፍትሒ ዝቃለሱ ምሁራትን ዘጠቓልል ኮሚቴታት ብምቛም ንደምበ ተቓውሞ ወኪሎም ክዋስኡ ምውፋር ኢዩ ክብል ንሕምረት ናይ’ቲ እማመ ንሓባራዊ ዕዮ ኣብሪሁ።

ሓው በሺር ኢሽሓቕ ከኣ፡ ግደ ተቓወምቲ ውድባትን ሲቪላውያን ማሕበራትን ተማላላኢ እምበር ናይሕሪ ሕድሕድ ተወዳደርቲ ከምዘይኰኑ፣ ብዙሕነት ጸገም ከምዘይኰነ፡ እቲ ጸገም ኣብ ምምሕዳሩ ምዃኑ፤ ብስምዒት ዝግበር ምጽንባራት ዘላቒ ከምዘይኰነ ድሕሪ ምብራህ፡ እቲ ጸገም ናይ ተቓወምቲ ሓይልታት፡-

1. ብሩህ ኣረዳድኣ ኣብ ፖለቲካዊ ስልጣን ዘይምህላው፣

2. ንጹር ስትራተጂ ዘይምህላው፣

3. ንውሽጥን ንግዳምን ዝውሃብ ፖለቲካዊ መልእኽቲ ዘይተነጸረ ምዃኑ፣

4. ኣብ ግዳም ምምርኳስ ዝፈጥሮ ኣሉታዊ ጽለዋታት ከምዘሎ ገሊጹ፣

5 ካብ ህዝብኻን ሃገርካን ርሒቕካ እተካይዶ ቃልሲ ድማ ቀሊል ከምዘይኰነ ኣረዲኡ።

Public London

ሓው ዓብደልረዛቕ መሓመድ ሙሳ ድማ፡ ህዝቢ ንጡፍ ተዋሳኣ እምበር ተጸባያይ ክኸውን ከምዘይብሉ ዝብል መሰረት ዘበገሶ ኣዝዩ መሃርን መሳጥን መግለጺ ኣቕሪቡ። ካብ’ዚ ተበጊሱ ንሕና ብዛዕባ ዝመርሓና ራኢ ደኣ’ምበር ብዛዕባ መን ይመርሓና ዝብል ኣብ ውልቀሰባት ዝተመርኰሰ ምክፍፋላት ከምዘየድልየና ኣተንቢሁ። ከምኡ’ውን፡ ጉድለታትካ ምልላይ ዘለዎ ኣገዳስነት ሓቢሩ። ጉድለታትን ንምልላይን ንምግምጋምን ከኣ፡ እቶም ፈጸምቱ ዘይኰናስ፡ ናይ ናጻ ዝዀኑ ኣካላት ተራ ምዃኑ ኣተንቢሁ።

ቀጺሉ፡ ኣብ ኤርትራዊ ፖለቲካዊ መዳይ እቲ እውጅ መርገጽን ብዘይእውጅ ኣገባብ ተኸዊሉ ዝኸይድ ጐስጓሳትን ሓደ እንተደኣ ዘይኰኑ ከስዕቦ ዝኽእል ጕድኣትን ዘይምትእምማንን ቀሊል ከምዘይኰነ ኣረዲኡ።

ተኻፈልቲ ዋዕላ፡ ነቲ ዝቐረበሎም መግለጺታት ብሕቶን ርእይቶን ድሕሪ ምህብታሙ፡ ነቲ ውዕሎ ዝገልጽ ሓባራዊ መግለጺ ክወጽእ ተሰማምዑ።

ኣብ መወዳእታ ኣቦ መንበር ኣሰናዳኢት ኮሚቴ ዋዕላ፡ ሓው ዶክተር  ዑመር ዘርኣይ ንኣቕረብቲ ወረቓቕቲ፡ ንወከልቲ ፖለቲካዊ ውድባትን ሲቪላውያን ማሕበራትን ንኣኼበኛታት ብሓበራ ብምምስጋንን፣ እቲ ዋዕላ በቶም ኣዳለውቱ ጥራሕ ከም እተመወለን ብምግላጽ ነቲ ዋዕላ ዛዚምዎ።

 Omer Zerom

ዶክተር ዑመር ዘርኣይ

ኣቦ መንበር ሰዲህኤ ሓው መንግስተኣብ ኣስመሮም፡ ነቲ ብሓው ዓብደልረዛቕ ዝቐረበ ኣስተምህሮ ብትግርኛን ዓረብኛን ተተርጕሙ ብጽሑፍን ብድምጽን ናብ ህዝቢ ክዝርጋሕ ተላብዩ። ኣኼበኛ ድማ፡ ከም’ዚ ዝኣመሰለ ዋዕላ ብስፍሕ ዝበለ ኣገባብ ክዳሎ ተላብዩ።

ሓው መንግስተኣብ ኣስመሮም ብቤት ጽሕፈት ዜና ሰዲህኤ ንዝቐረበሉ ሕቶ ክምልስ እንከሎ፡ እቲ ዋዕላ ብዅሉ መዳያቱ ዘሕጉስን መሃርን ምንባሩን እማመ ሰዲህኤ እውን ደገፍ ከምዝረኸበን ኣብሪሁ። ብቋንቋ ዓረብኛ ምስ ተለቪዥን ኤርትራዊ ማእከል ዜና ቃለ-መሓትት ከምዝገበረ ሓቢሩ። ከምኡ’ውን፡ ሓው ኣማኒኤል በራኺ፡ ኣባል ማእክላይ ባይቶ ሰዲህኤ፡ ሓው ጐይትኦም መብራህቱ፡ ኣቦ መንበር ጨንፈር ሰዲህኤ ዓባይ ብሪጣንያ እውን ኣብ’ቲ ዋዕላ ተኻፊሎም ምንባሮም ገሊጹ።

ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ (ሰዲህኤ) ብምኽንያት በዓል ትንሳኤ ንዅሎም ኣብ’ዚ እዋን’ዚ ዘኽብርዎ ዘለዉ ኣብ ኤርትራን ኢትዮጵያን ፡ ከምኡ’ውን ኣብ ወጻኢ ሃገራት ዝርከቡ ምእመናን ክርስትና ብሓፈሻ፡ ንህዝቢ  ኤርትራ ድማ ብፍላይ ርሑስ በዓል ትንሳኤ ይግበረልኩም እናበለ ናይ ሓጐስኩም ተኻፋላይ ምዃኑ ይገልጽ።

በዚ ኣጋጣሚ’ዚ፡ ኣብ ሃገርና፡ ዞባናን ዓለምናን ሰላም፡ ፍትሕን ብልጽግናን ክሰፍን ኵልና አእጃምና ከነበርክት ድማ ይጽውዕ።

ፍቅርን ስኒትን ዝሰፈኖ ዓመት ይግበረልና

መንግስተኣብ ኣስመሮም

ኣቦ መንበር ሰዲህኤ

7 ሚያዝያ 2018

ሓለፍቲ ስዊዘርላንድ ብዛዕባ ኣብ ሃገሮም ዝርከቡ ፖለቲካዊ ዑቕባ ዝረኸቡ ኤርትራውያን ስደተኛታት ናብ ሃገሮም ንምምላስ ዝግበር ዳግመ ግምት ይሕብሩ ከም ዘለዉ፡ ትሪቡን ዲጀነቫ ዝተባህለት ዕለታዊት ጋዜጣ ኣብ ናይ 5 ማዝያ 2018 ሕታማ ሓቢራ። እታ ጋዜጣ እቶም ነዚ ብዝምልከት ዝሕበሩ ዘለዉ፡ ጉዳዮም ተራእዩ ኣብ ኤርትራ ኣብ ወተሃደራዊ ተግባር ንዓመታት ዘገልገሉ ምዃኖም ተጻርዩ ፖለቲካዊ ዑቑባ ዝተውህቦም ምዃኑ ከም ዘጻረየት ኣረጋጊጻ።

ናይ ስዊዘርላንድ ፈደራላዊ ምምሕዳራዊ መገባእያ፡ ናይ ወርሒ ነሓሰ 2017 ውሳነ፡ ፖለቲካዊ ዑቑባ ተዋሂብዎም ዝነበረ ኤርትራውያን ስደተኛታት ኣብ ሃገሮም ናይ 18 ኣዋርሕ ወተሃደራዊ ኣገልግሎት ዝፈጸሙ እንተኾይኖም፡ ብሰላም ናብ ሃገሮም ክምለሱ ይኽእሉ እዮም ዝብል እዩ። ሓለፍቲ ስዊዘርላንድ ነዚ ፍሉይን ኣገራምን ውሳነኦም መወከሲ መሰረቶም መንግስቲ ኤርትራ ዝህቦም “መረጋገጺ” እዩ።.

ካለኦት ናይ ስዊዘርላንድ ምንጭታት ብወገኖም ከም ዝሕብርዎ፡ ካብቶም ኣብዚ ቀረባ ግዜ ተቐባልነት ዝረኸቡ 9 ሺሕ ኤርትራውያን ስደተኛታት ብዳግመ ርኢቶ ንክምለሱ ጠመተ ተገይርሎም ዘሎ እቶም 3 ሺሕ እዮም። ኣብ ዝሓለፉ 10 ዓመታት ልዕሊ 25 ሺሕ ዑቑባ ዝሓቱ ኤርትራውያን ስደተኛታት ናብ ስዊዘርላንድ ኣትዮም።

Swiss authorities are informing thousands of Eritrean refugees already holding political asylum that their cases will be reconsidered for eventual repatriation back to Eritrea, according to the French daily newspaper Tribune de Genève of 5 April 2018.


The paper confirmed that those receiving notifications are already accepted political refugees who reportedly completed some years in military service in Eritrea before they escaped the country.


According to a decision in August 2017 by the Swiss Federal Administrative Tribunal, those Eritrean refugees who were given political asylum on reasons of 'military desertion' can return home 'safely' if they already completed up to 18 months of military service before escaping from Eritrea. The Swiss authorities appeared to be willing to accept Eritrean government "assurances" as the basis of their exceptionally surprising decision.


Other Swiss sources reported that of about 9,000 Eritrean political refugees accepted in recent years as army deserters, more than 3,000 are currently targeted for reconsideration of their cases for repatriation. During the past ten years, over 25,000 Eritreans entered Switzerland as asylum seekers.

Israel has announced having reversed its plan of expelling African asylum seers to African countries and is now to send over 16,000 of them to Western countries. This latest plan is agreed with the UN agency for refugees.


Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu told the press over the weekend that Canada, Germany and Italy are among the countries that may welcome the asylum seekers. However, he added that the plan is not formally accepted by all the supposed destination countries.

Many of the rest of the 'migrants' who are said to have reached Israel 'illegally' will be allowed to stay in that country at least for the coming five years.

UNHCR office confirmed the existence of such agreement without disclosing the names of the welcoming countries. However, German and Italian spokespersons said their respective countries were not aware of the agreement. On the other hand, a Canadian Immigration Ministry spokesperson confirmed his country's agreement with Israel about not expelling those asylum seekers until their sponsorship applications to enter Canada are processed. Some 1,840 sponsorship to Canada were reportedly registered till end of 2017.

EPDP Deligation to Israel 02.04.2018

It is to be recalled that an EPDP leadership delegation arrived in Israel on 31 March 2018, and many Eritrean asylum seekers in Israel are reportedly referring to the delegation as "a mission coming with good tidings" - ርሑሳትኣእጋር!!

መግለጺ ሓዘን

%PM, %03 %584 %2018 %15:%Apr Written by

ኣብ’ዚ ሰሙን’ዚ ሓርበኛን ገዲም ተጋዳላይ ተጋድሎ ሓርነት ኤርትራ ዝነበረ ኣቦና ድንጉስ ኣረይ ኣብ መበል 103 ዓመት ዕድሚኡ፤ ከምኡ’ውን ሓርበኛ ተቓላሲት ጸረ’ቲ ኣብ ደቡብ ኣፍሪቃ ዝነበረ ዓሌታዊ ስርዓት ብትብዓት እተቓለሰት በዓልቲ ቤቱ ንነፍስሄር ፕረሲደንት ኒልሰን ማንደላ ዝነበረት 81 ዓመት ዝዕድሚኣ ዊኒ ማንደላ ካብ’ዛ ዓለም ተፈልዮምና ኣለዉ። ብኣካል እኳ ካባና እንተተፈልዩ፡ ምያኦም ግን ንዘልኣለም እናተዘከረ ክነብር ኢዩ።

በዚ ኣጋጣሚ’ዚ፡ ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ (ሰዲህኤ) ንስውኣት መንግስተ-ሰማይ የዋርሶም፡ ንቤተሰቦም፡ መቃልስቶምን ህዝቦምን ድማ ጽንዓት ይሃቦም እናበለ፡ ናይ ሓዘኖም ተኻፋላይ ምዃኑ ክገልጽ ይፈቱ።

መንግስተኣብ ኣስመሮም

ኣቦ መንበር ሰልፊ ዲሞክራሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ

3 ሚያዝያ 2018