U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary (DAS) for East Africa and The Sudans (R) pose with Sudan opposition delegation 23 April 2019 (Photo U.S. Embassy)

April 23, 2019 (KHARTOUM) - The U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary (DAS) for East Africa and The Sudans called n the leader of the transitional military council (TMC) to negotiate with the opposition groups on the formation of a civil government.

Makila James who is visiting Sudan nowadays met Tuesday with Abdek Fattah al-Burhan TMC leader to discuss the political situation in the country after the fall of the regime of President Omer al-Bashir.

In a statement released on Tuesday evening, the U.S Embassy in Khartoum said the visiting diplomat commended the TMC on their decision to heed the people of Sudan’s legitimate demand for a civilian-led, inclusive and representative government that respects human rights.

"She, also, encouraged the TMC to continue to negotiate with the political opposition and protest leaders and to form a civilian-led transitional government," reads the statement.

The opposition which suspended discussions with the TMC political committee organized significant protests across the country on Tuesday and has proven its capacity to mobilize the Sudanese street.

Another protest is scheduled for Thursday before to announce civil authority, a lean government and the appointed transitional legislative assembly.

The visiting diplomat, also, held a meeting with the Freedom and Change forces.

"She commended the people of Sudan for their resiliency and commitment to non-violence as they expressed their legitimate demand for inclusive and representative government," said the Embassy.

Further James reiterated the U.S. priority to see a civilian-led transition to a peaceful and democratic Sudan, stressed the statement.

(ST)

Source=http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article67421

Wednesday, 24 April 2019 10:06

MBEKI URGES RESPECT FOR SUDAN’S SOVEREIGNTY

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MBEKI URGES RESPECT FOR SUDAN’S SOVEREIGNTY

 Former President Thabo Mbeki has weighed in on the ongoing Au Troika Summit in Egypt being attended by President Cyril Ramaphosa.

JOHANNESBURG – Former President Thabo Mbeki says while the African Union and the international community discuss the future of Sudan, the country’s sovereignty must be respected.

Mbeki visited the African National Congress (ANC) pavilion at the Rand Easter Show where he weighed in on the ongoing Au Troika Summit in Egypt being attended by President Cyril Ramaphosa.

“The sovereignty of the Sudanese people about their own future has to be respected and that’s important, there’re clearly many other people around the world who are very interested in the future of Sudan, which is good. But I’m saying that interest must not undermine the possibility of the Sudanese to exercise sovereignty.”

At the summit, African leaders will focus on “the evolution of the situation in Sudan” where protests continue after the military toppled President Omar al-Bashir.

Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi is also the current president of the African Union.

He will receive the Chadian president Idriss Deby, Rwanda’s head of state Paul Kagame, Congo’s Denis Sassou-Nguesso, Somalia’s Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed and Ramaphosa as well as Dijbouti’s leader Ismail Omar Guelleh.

For Sudan, the objective “is to discuss … the most appropriate ways to address the evolution of the situation and to contribute to stability and peace”, Egypt’s presidency said.

The AU on 15 April threatened to suspend Sudan if the military does not hand over power within 15 days of that date to a civilian authority.

President of the African Union Commission Moussa Faki is also expected to participate in the discussions, along with officials from Ethiopia, South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya and Nigeria.

Source=http://smc.sd/en/mbeki-urges-respect-for-sudans-sovereignty/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=mbeki-urges-respect-for-sudans-sovereignty

April 24, 2019 News

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
24 April 2019

Eritrea Focus

UN Secretary General’s former Africa representative calls for democratic change in Eritrea

London, 24 April 2019Ambassador Haile Menkerios, who served as the United Nations Special Representative to the African Union, and Eritrea’s ambassador to Ethiopia from 1991 to 2000, is calling for a “national conference of representatives of the Eritrean people that would decide on a transitional arrangement to ensure an inclusive process of building participatory democracy in the country.”

Ambassador Menkerios will make his remarks to ‘Building Democracy in Eritrea’, a two-day conference held at Senate House, University of London, from 24-25 April.

The landmark conference will hear from Ambassador Menkerios that only the formation of a new national body of representatives “can prevent violence” following the end of the current dictatorship.

President Isaias Afwerki has ruled Eritrea since independence in 1993. He has suppressed all opposition parties, crushed the independent media and imprisoned his opponents indefinitely.

Eritrea has “the notoriety of being perhaps the only country in Africa that does not have a functioning constitution, a legitimate elected government, nor legitimate and functioning governance institutions that ensure accountability,” Ambassador Menkerios will say.

Conference objective

The two-day conference is being organised by Eritrea Focus, in partnership with the Institute of Commonwealth Studies at the School of Advanced Study. It brings together more than 70 delegates from the USA, Europe and Africa, including academics, campaigners, members of the Eritrean diaspora, and international experts.

“The objective of ‘Building Democracy in Eritrea’ is to bring together Eritreans and international supporters to begin thinking about tangible, realistic objectives for the establishment of democracy and the administration of justice in the country”, said Habte Hagos, Chairman of Eritrea Focus. “The time for this is now.”

The lessons from Sudan and Algeria

The London conference meets as the Sudanese and Algerian uprisings are unfolding, and which serve as examples of how regime change can come about.  The aim of the conference is to look beyond Eritrea’s current dictatorship and to explore how democratic renewal can be assisted and encouraged.

Among those participating are:

  • Dr Bereket Habte Selassie, the author of the Eritrean Constitution
  • Ambassador Andebrhan Weldegiorgis, former Eritrean Ambassador to the European Union
  • Abraham Zere, head of PEN Eritrea
  • Dan Connell, eminent author and scholar
  • Prof Kjetil Tronvoll, of Norway’s International Law and Policy Institute, expert on the Horn of Africa
  • Prominent humanitarians working with the US Congress, the European Union and the British Parliament.

While the rapprochement between Eritrea and Ethiopia last year brought an end to the state of “no war, no peace” that persisted for 20 years, there are no signs that any reforms have been enacted to address the drastic situation of human rights within the country, which last month the UK Government said remained of “significant concern”.

“The almost absolute concentration of power in the hands of the President is both unstable and unsustainable”, says Habte Hagos. “The British Government acknowledges that we have seen no improvement in the situation of Eritreans following the peace deal with Ethiopia, and people continue to flee the brutal regime of indefinite conscription and the suppression of their most basic human rights. We must learn the lessons of dictatorships that fell but did not give way to democracy, and act quickly to set out the conditions that must be met for a future free from the tyranny of the past three decades.”

ENDS

Notes to editors:

Eritrea Focus is an association of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), human rights organisations, exile and refugee groups and individuals concerned with the gross abuses of human rights in Eritrea.

The objective of Eritrea Focus is to draw attention to the horrific abuses and suffering of Eritreans, both within the country and as refugees living abroad. We campaign for democratic accountability in Eritrea and the establishment of the rule of law, and actively engage with the international community in our efforts to achieve this.

Eritrea Focus provides secretarial support to the All-Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on Eritrea.

For media enquiries, contact:
James Killin
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Tel: 020 7922 7719

Source=https://eritreahub.org/london-conference-hears-call-from-senior-african-and-un-diplomat-for-democratic-change-in-eritrea

ርእሰ-ዓንቀጽ ሰዲህኤ

ነጻ ሃገረ-ኤርትራ ብዲክታቶር ኢሳይያስ ኣፈወርቂ ክትምራሕ ምስ ጀመረት፡ ምስ የመን፡ ሱዳን፡ ጂቡትን ኢትዮጵያን ኣብ ቀጻሊ ውግእ ከም ዝኣተወት ናይ ቀረባ ግዜ ተዘክሮና እዩ። እዚ ውግኣት ተዘክሮ ጥራይ ዘይኮነ ጌና ደሙ ኣይነቐጸን። ብፍላይ ከኣ ናይቲ ምስ ኢትዮጵያ ዝተኸየደ፡ በቲ ኢሳይያስ ዝተኣመነሉ ጥራይ ካለኦት ግና ዝያዳ እዩ ዝብልዎ፡ 19 ሺሕ ኤርትራውያን መላምል ዝተቐዝፍሉ፥ ምግማቱ ዘጸግም ኤርትራዊ ንብረት ዝዓነወሉ፡ ብዙሓት ኤርትራውያን ዝተማዛበልሉ፡ ዝተሰድሉ፡ ንብረቶም ዘርሞዘርሞ ዝኾነሉንን፡ ዲሞክራስያዊ ተስፋ ኤርትራውያን ዝጸልመተሉን፡ ስለ ዝኾነ ኣይኮነንዶ ሎሚ ጽባሕ እውን ዝርሳዕ ስንብራት ኣይኮነን። ናይዚ ኩሉ ክሳራን ንድሕሪት ምምላስን ተሓታቲ ከኣ ኢሳይያስ ኣፈወርቅን ጉጅለኡን እምበር፡ ካልእ ከምዘይኮነ  ክንእመነሉ ዝግበኣና ዘየገላብጥ ሓቂ እዩ። በቲ መርዛም ስብከቱ ተሰሊብካ፡   ጉጅለ ህግዲፍ ንምድሓን ነቲ ተሓታትነት ናብ ካልእ ንኣብነት ናብ ወያነ ከተላግቦ ምፍታን ከኣ፡ ርትዓውን ፍትሓውን ኣብ ልዕሊ ዘይምዃኑ ንገዛእ ርእስኻ ምዕሻው እዩ።

“ስለምንታይ እዩ ጉጅለ ህግደፍ ናይ ሓሶት ምኽንያታት እንዳሰነዐ ምስ ኩለን ጐረባብቲ ሃገራት ሓዊ ዝኣጉድ ዝነበረ?” ናይ ዝብል ሕቶ መልሲ፡ ኣብ ኤርትራውያን ፍልልያት ከምጽእ ከም ዝጸንሐ ፍሉጥ እዩ። ህግደፍ ካብ ተሓታትነት ንምህዳም ነዚ ሕቶዚ ንምላስ፡ ክህንድሶ ዝጸንሐ ምህዞታት፡ ዶብና ስለ ዝተወረ፡ ሃይማኖታዊ ጥሩፍነት ስለ ዘልሓኹልና፡ ንኢሳይያስ ክቐትልዎ ስለ ዝሃቀኑ፡ ኣብ ውሽጣዊ ጉዳይና ስለ ዝኣተዉ ,,,,, ወዘተ ዝብሉ ምህዞታት ከም ዝነበሩ ንዝክሮ ኢና። ነቲ ኩነታት ትንፋስና ውሒጥና የማነ ጸጋም መዚና ካብ ጸቢብነት ተዓጊስና ክንመዝኖ እንከለና ግና፡ ምህዞ ህግደፍ ፍጹም መሰረት ዘየብሉ ሓሶት እዩ ነይሩ።

እቲ ሓቀኛ ናይ ህግዲፍ ፈቐድኡ ውግእ ናይ ምእጓድ ምኽንያት፡ ብዘይካ ሓቀኛ መንነቱ ኣብ ናይ ውግእ ህቦቡላ ንምሕባእን፡ ናይ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ናይ ኣተሓሳስባ ኣቕጣጫ ካብ ውሽጢ ናብ ደገ ምቕናዕ ከኣ ካልእ ምኽንያት ነይሩ። ህግዲፍ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ “ሃገርካ ክትውረር እያ” ዝብል ደርጓዕጓዕ እንተስሚዕካዮ “ብመንን ስለምንታይን” ከይበለ ሴፉ ከም ዝስሕል ስለ ዝተረደአ፡ ነዚ ሕኑን ኤርትራዊ ሃገራዊ ፍቕሩ መዝሚዙ ኣብ ሓዊ ክጠብሶ ጸኒሑ። እዚ እቲ መሸፈኒ ኮይኑ፡ ብፍላይ ናይቲ ኣንጻር ኢትዮጵያ ዝወለዖን ዝተፈላለዩ ሕብርታት ክቐብኦ ዝጸንሐን ውግእ ቀንዲ ምኽንያት፡ እቲ ክዝረበሉ ዝጸንሐ ጉዳይ ዶብ ከምዘይኮነ፡ ሎሚ ናይ ማሕበራዊ ሳይንስ ተመራመርቲ ዓው ኢሎም ዝገልጽዎ ዘለዉ እዩ። ዘይተጸንዐን ኣመዛዚኑ ዘይርእን ኣብ መወዳእታ ዝተሳዕረን ናይ ሽዑ ቁጠባዊ ፖሊሲ ህግደፍ ምስ ተሳዕረ ህግዲፍ ኣብ ውግእ ንኽኣቱ ከም ዘገደዶ ሎሚ ብወግዒ ተፈሊጡ እዩ። እዚ ናይ ሽዑ ናይ ውግእ ጠንቂ ሎሚ’ውን ካብ ኣእምሮ’ዚ ዲክታቶር ኣይወጸን። እቲ ካብኡ ዝገደደ ንህግዲፍ ናብ ውግእ ኣንጻር ኢትዮጵያ ዝደፈኦ ናይ ኢሳይያስ ዓባይ ኢትዮጵያ ናይ ምምራሕ ህርፋን ምስ በነነ ምዃኑ ሎሚ ብዙሓት ተመራመርትን ፖለቲከኛታትን ዘግህድዎ ዘለዉ እንተኸወልካዮ ዘይክወል ጠንቂ እዩ። ኣብዚ እዋንዚ ኢሳይያስ ኣፈወርቂ፡ ኣብ ከተማታት ኢትዮጵያ ከይዱ ኣፍልቡ ዝወቕዓሉ ዘሎ ቆልዓዊ ምኽንያት እውን ነዚ ሕነ ናይ ምፍዳይ ባህሪኡ ዘመልክት እዩ። ኣብ ውግእ ኤርትራን ኢትዮጵያን ኢሳይያስ ኣብ ሓሳብን ኣርሒቕካ ምርኣይን ምስተሳዕረ፡ ሕነ ናይ ምፍዳይ ውግእ ከም ዝጀመረ ንሕና ንብሎ ዘለና ዘይኮኮነ ብደረጃ ዓለም ነዚ ጉዳዚ ከጻሪ ሓላፍነት ዝወሰደ ኣካል ከም ዝመስከረን ኤርትራ ከም ጀማሪት ውግእ ንክትክሕስ ዝፈረዳን ምዃኑ ክንዝንግዕ ኣይግበኣናን።

ኢሳይያስ ስለምንታይ ከምዚ ዓይነት ውግእ ናይ ምኽፋት ስጉምቲ ወሲዱ ካብ ቅድም’ውን ንጹር እዩ። ካብ ወልፊ ውግእ ወጻኢ ክነብር ስለ ዘይክእል እዩ። ንሱስ ሕራይ ባህሪኡ ኮይንዎ፡ “ስለምንታይከ ብሓፈሻ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ብፍላይ ድማ ኤርትራዊ መንእሰይ ኣሚኑ ኣብ ሓዊ ተጠቢስሉ?” ዝብል ግና ኣዘራራብን ኣብ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ሕቶ ዘልዕልን እዩ። ደሓር ግና ኤርትራዊ መንእሰይ ኣብቲ ኣቐዲሙ ዝተጠቕሰ ኢሳያሳዊ ወልፊ ንምርዋይ ዝተወጠነ ውግኣት ክጥበስ እንከሎ፡ ከም ዝተዓሸወ ዝተረደአ ይመስል። ነዚ ስርዓት ራሕሪሕዎ ናብ ስደት ምውሓዙ በቲ ስርዓት ተዓሽዩ ከም ዝነበረ ናይ ምርድኡ ምልክት እዩ። እቲ ተዓሽዩ ከም ዝነበረ ምርድኡ ጽቡቕ ኮይኑ፡ እቲ ከም ግብረ መልሲ ዝወሰዶ ናይ ስደት ምርጫ ግና ካልእ ነዚ ዲክታቶር ዘሕጎሱ እዩ። ምኽንያቱ ነቲ ሃገር ናይ ምብራስ ሕቡእ ኣጀንዳኡ ዘተግብረሉ ኮይኑ ስለ ዝረኸቦ። እንተኾነ ሕጂ እውን ከምቲ “ክንብል በለ እምበር ኣይተኻዕወን” ዝበሃል፡ ቃልሲ መንእሰያት ኣንጻር ዲክታቶር፡ ከካብ ዘለኻዮ ኩርናዕን በብዝጥዕመካ ኣገባብን ይቕጽል ስለ ዘሎ ተስፋ ዝህብ እዩ። መድረኽ “ይኣክል” ክሳብ ክንድዚ ምዕማሩ ከኣ ነዚ ዘመልክት እዩ።

ዲክታቶር ኢሳይያስ ኣብዚ እዋንዚ ኣብ ኤርትራ ናይ ታዕሊም ተሃድሶን ግፋን የካይድ ከምዘሎ ይሕበር ኣሎ። እዚ ከኣ ተዋጋኢ ባህሪኡ ኣብ ቦትኡ ከም ዘሎ ዘመልክት እዩ። ኣብ ቦታኡ ዘሎ እቲ ተዋጋኢ ባህርያቱ  ጥራይ ዘይኮነ፡ እቲ ካብ ገዛእ ርእሱ ዘይጅምር ጽገዕተኛ ናይ ቁጠባ ፖሊሲኡ እውን ከምኡ ኣብ ቦታኡ’ዩ ዘሎ። ከምቲ ወለድና “ኣመል ምስ መግነዝ” ዝብልዎ እዚ ዲክታቶር ክሳብ ዘሎ ተናኻሲ ባህሪኡ እውን ምስኡ እዩ ዘሎ። እቲ ቅድሚ ሕጂ ኣንጻር ኢትዮጵያን ካለኦት ጐረባብቲ ሃገራትን ውግእ ዝኸፈተ ባህሪኡ ምስኡ እዩ ዘሎ። ምስዚ ባህሪኡ ክሳብ ዘሎ ከኣ፡ ዓቕሚ እንተዘይገዲብዎ፡ ውግእ ካብ ምኽፋት ዓዲ ከምዘይውዕል ተግባራቱ’ውን ይምስክር ኣሎ። ዲክታቶር ኢሳይያስ ኣብ ዝተፈላለዩ መድረኻት ኢትዮጵያን ናይዚ እዋንዚ ለኣኽቱ ሃገራትን ከይዱ ኣፍልቡ ብምውቓዕ ድዩ ኢዱ ብምስዓም ባህሪኡ ዝቐየረ ዝመስሎም  ኣካላት ከይጋገዩ ናይ “ኢሳይያስ ቀደም ኮነ ሎሚ፡ ኢሳይያስ’ዩ እሞ፡ ኣይትተሃመሉ” መልእኽትና ነመሓላልፈሎም።

Sunday, 21 April 2019 09:20

Radio Demtsi Harnnet Sweden 20.04.2019

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President Omer al-Bashir speaks to police senior officers at the headquarters of the “police house” in Burri suburb on December 30, 2018. (AFP Photo)

April 20, 2019 (KHARTOUM) - Sudan’s public prosecutor’s office opened two complaints against the deposed President Omer al-Bashir on charges of money laundering and possession of large sums of hard currency without legal ground, a judicial source told Reuters on Saturday.

The source added that the senior prosecutor appointed by the military council to fight corruption ordered the arrest of the former president and questioned him soon in preparation for his trial.

The prosecution will question the former president who is already imprisoned in Khartoum central prison of Kober, and that there are legal proceedings will be taken against some other figures of the former regime who are accused of corruption.

Sudanese media said on Saturday that a team of the armed forces and military intelligence had raided the residence of the ousted president.

The Alray Alaam newspaper reported that the team found large amounts of foreign and local currencies which amounted to more than 6 million Euros, 351 thousand U.S. dollars, and 5 billion Sudanese pounds.

The newspaper quoted the prosecutor in charge of corruption cases, Mutasim Abdellah Mahmoud, as saying that the prosecution immediately began to implement the directives of the Transitional Military Council, and carries out its duties in the fight against corruption.

Mahmoud said further search operation will be at al-Bashir’s residence, and the seized money will be deposited in the Central Bank.

The military council said they refuse to hand over the former president to the International Criminal court and pledged to try him for Darfur war crimes in Sudan.

(ST)

Source=http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article67405

ክቡር ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ኣብ ውሽጥን ወጻኢን ትርከብ ዘለኻ፡ኣቐዲምና ካብ ደቅኻ፡ ብስም እቲ ኩሉ ዝከኣሎ ኣምላኽ ካብ ከተማ ካስል/ጀርመን ሰላምታና ይብጻሓካ። ጭዋ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ፡ካብ ነዊሕ መዋእላት ኣትሒዝካ ከይቀሰንካ ትካለበት ዘለኻ ከመይ ትኸውን ኣሎኻ።ኩላትና ደቕኻ ኣብ ምሉእ ዓለም ፋሕ ኢልና ዘለና፡ብኣኻን ብሃገርናን ካብ ነዊሕ እዋን ኣትሒዝና ከምዘይቐሰና ኣጥቢቕና ክንሕብረካ ንፈቱ። ብመሰረቱ ጠንቂ ናይ’ዚ ኣብ ልዕለኻን ሃገርናን ወሪዱ ዘሎ ዘይንስሕቶ’ኳ ይኹን’በር።ድኽመታትናን ፍልልያትናን ወጊድና፡ብሓድነት ዘይምግጣምና ድኽመታትና ምዃኑ ኣይንስሕቶን ኢና።ኮይኑ ግን እቲ መጀመርታ ዘለዎ፡ መወዳእታ ኣለዎ እሞ፡እዚ ሕሱም ጸላኢ ህዝብናን ሃገርናን፡ብሃንደበት ዝመጸ ዘይኮነስ ተኾስኵሱን ተመልሚሉን ንኤርትራዊ ዘርኢ ንምድምሳስ፡ገረብ ብሓኽላ ዕላማ ሒዙ ዝወፈረ ስለዝኾነ እንሆ ንህዝብናን ሃገርናን ኣብሪሱዎ ይርከብ ኣሎ።* እዚ ሕሱም ጨካን ጸላኢና ኣብ ውሽጥና ኣትዩ፡ኣብ ነንሕድሕድና ከምዘይንተኣማመን ገይሩ ንመዋእላት ከሳቕየናን ከጽንተናን ጸኒሑን ኣሎን።ብፍላይ ገለ ካባና ነዚ  ጸላኢ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ዝኾነ፡ንልዕሊ ኣርበዓ ዓመት ዝኣክል ጸላኢናን ሓደገኛን  ምዃኑ ዘይሓበርና ኣይኮናን፡እንተኾነ ግዳ፡ትሰምዓና እዝኒ ኣይረኸብናን። እወ!እዚ ሽፍታ’ዚ ንኣሕዋትና ምሁራትን ኣስተውዓትን ተጋደልቲ ክቃለሱ ንሜዳ ኤርትራ ዝወረዱን፡ዓበይቲ ዓድን፡ኣሽሓት ገባርን ደቂ ገባርን ዝቐዘፎም ማእለያ የብሎምን።ብድሕሪ’ታ ነጻነት ተባህላ ትፍለጥ፡ ግን ከኣ ባርነት ዝኾነት፡ንህዝብና ብጋህዲ ቅንጸለን ማእሰርትን ኣብ ዘየድሊ ኵናት ምጥባስን፡ንብረቱ ምዝራፍን፡ክሳብ ሃገሩ ገዲፉ ንሰደት ከም ዘምርሕ ገይሩዎን ረጊጹዎን ኣሎ።ካብ ዝሓለፈ ዓመታት ኣትሒዙ ንሉኡላዊ መረት ኤርትራ፡ዓሰብ ንኢሜራት ዓርብ ብዘይ ኣፍልጦ ህዝቢ መጥይዎ ይርከብ ኣሎ። ኣብዚ ዝሓለፈ ዓመት ድማ፡ ብሽፋን ናይ ሰላም ዘብዘብ ዝተጀመረሉ ግዜ፡ውልቀ መላኺ ኤርትራ ሕሉፍ ሓሊፉ፡ንኣዕጸምቲ ጀጋኑ ስዉኣትና ረጊጹ፡፡ነቲ ኣብ ዝሓለፈ መዋእላት ዝእምቶ ዝነበረ፡ ብጋህዲ’ዩ ደርጉሒዎ፡ ዶ/ር ኣቢይ "ምርሓና  ንስኻ፣ ሓላፍነት ሂበካ ኣሎኹ፡ኣይከሰርናን፡ዝጠፍኣና ንብረት የብልናን፡ዶብ ምሕንጻጽ ክጸንሕ ዝኽእል ጉዳይ ኢዩ፡ቀዳማይ ዕማም ክውሰድ ዘለዎ ምርግጋእ ኢትዮጵያ ኢዩ፡ህዝቢ ኤርትራን ኢትዮጵያን ክልተ ህዝብታት ኢዮም ኢሉ ዝሓስብ፡ ነቲ ሓቂ ዘይፈልጥን፡ንሰላምና ክብርዛ ዝደልን እዩ፡ክብል ሰሚዒናዮ ኢና። ኤርትራ፡ካብ ዝሓለፈ ዓመት  ኣትሒዛ ድማ፡ ከም ክልል ኢትዮጵያ ኮይና ትኸደሉ ዘላ ብዙሕ ጩራታት ይረኣዩ ኣለዉ።ብፍላይ ኣብዚ ግዜ’ዚ ድማ፡ ውልቀ መላኺ፡ ንኤርትራዊ ሓይሊ ባሕሪ ኣፍሪሱ፡ንባጽዕ ሓይሊ መደበር ኢትዮጵያ ክትኸውን ሂብዎም ከምዘሎ ብዙሓት ምንጭታት ሓቢሮም ኣለዉ። 

ክቡራት ኣሕዋት ዝዓበኹም ዝነኣስኩም፡ሎሚ ይኣክል ምፍልላይ፡ሃገርናን ህዝብናን ነድሕን።ብፍላይ ህግደፋውያን ኣሕዋትና ይኣክል ጓይላን ዳንከረን ምስዚ ጠላሚ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ።እዚ ጠላሚ፡ንህዝብና ከጽንትን፡ንሃገርና ከዕኑን ከም ዝተዓጥቀ ዝተረድኡ ኣሕዋትና ህግደፋውያን፡ናብ ልቦም ተመሊሶም ንህዝቦም ክኽሕሱ ዝተበገሱ ድማ መርሓባ ክቡራት ኣሕዋት ንብሎም። ነቶም ገና ምስዚ ሽፍታ ደምሳሲ ህዝብናን ሃገርናን ንዓሰርተታት ዓመታት ዘጣቕዑን፡ኣብ ልዕሊ ህዝቦም ዘላገጹን ናብ ልቦም ተመሊሶም ብህጹጽ ኣብ ጎኒ ህዝቦም ደው ክብሉ ደጊምና ደጋጊምና ይኣክል  ንብሎም።ነቶም ኣብ ላዕለዋይ ጽሕፍታትን፡ሓለፍቲ ሰራዊትን፡ከምኡ እውን ኤምባሲታትን ኣብ ጎድኒ ህዝቦም ደው ክብሉ ህጹጽ መጸዋዕታና ነቕርቦሎም።እዛ ውቅብቲ ንምክሓላ ሃገርና ኤርትራ! ርኢና ከይንስእና፡ደጊም ይኣክል ተመለሱ ምስ ህዝብኹም ደወ በሉ ንብሎም! ይኣክል ስደትን ውርደትን፡ ይኣክል ጭውያን ቅትለትን፡ ይኣክል ዕንደራን ብድዐን፡ ይኣክል ጽምዋን ብኽያትን፡ ይኣክል ምጽናትን ብርሰትን።ይኣክል ማእሰርትን መቕዘፍትን፡ ይኣክል ናይ ደቅና ኣብ ባሕሪ ህልቂት! ይኣክል በብመዓልቱ ዝጭወዩን ኣብ ጎዳጉዲ ዝዕበጡ ዘለዉን!፡ ይኣክል ኣውራጃውን፥ ብሄራውን፥ሃይማኖታውን ፍልልያት! ሓደራ ካብ ኩሉ ሕማማት ወጺእና፡ ሃገራዊ ህዝባዊ ጥርናፈ ነዘውትር!፡ ብህጹጽ ህዝባዊ ባይቶ ይቑም!።ክቡራት ኣሕዋት ዝዓበኹም ዝነኣስኩም፡ሎሚ ይኣክል ምፍልላይ፡ሃገርናን ህዝብናን ነድሕን።ብፍላይ ህግደፋውያን ኣሕዋትና ይኣክል ጓይላን ዳንከረን ምስዚ ጠላሚ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ።እዚ ጠላሚ፡ንህዝብና ከጽንትን፡ንሃገርና ከዕኑን ከም ዝተዓጥቀ ዝተረድኡ ኣሕዋትና ህግደፋውያን፡ናብ ልቦም ተመሊሶም ንህዝቦም ክኽሕሱ ዝተበገሱ ድማ መርሓባ ክቡራት ኣሕዋት ንብሎም። ነቶም ገና ምስዚ ሽፍታ ደምሳሲ ህዝብናን ሃገርናን ንዓሰርተታት ዓመታት ዘጣቕዑን፡ኣብ ልዕሊ ህዝቦም ዘላገጹን ናብ ልቦም ተመሊሶም ብህጹጽ ኣብ ጎኒ ህዝቦም ደው ክብሉ ደጊምና ደጋጊምና ይኣክል  ንብሎም።ነቶም ኣብ ላዕለዋይ ጽሕፍታትን፡ሓለፍቲ ሰራዊትን፡ከምኡ እውን ኤምባሲታትን ኣብ ጎድኒ ህዝቦም ደው ክብሉ ህጹጽ መጸዋዕታና ነቕርቦሎም።እዛ ውቅብቲ ንምክሓላ ሃገርና ኤርትራ! ርኢና ከይንስእና፡ደጊም ይኣክል ተመለሱ ምስ ህዝብኹም ደወ በሉ ንብሎም! ይኣክል ስደትን ውርደትን፡ ይኣክል ጭውያን ቅትለትን፡ ይኣክል ዕንደራን ብድዐን፡ ይኣክል ጽምዋን ብኽያትን፡ ይኣክል ምጽናትን ብርሰትን።ይኣክል ማእሰርትን መቕዘፍትን፡ ይኣክል ናይ ደቅና ኣብ ባሕሪ ህልቂት! ይኣክል በብመዓልቱ ዝጭወዩን ኣብ ጎዳጉዲ ዝዕበጡ ዘለዉን!፡ ይኣክል ኣውራጃውን፥ ብሄራውን፥ሃይማኖታውን ፍልልያት! ሓደራ ካብ ኩሉ ሕማማት ወጺእና፡ ሃገራዊ ህዝባዊ ጥርናፈ ነዘውትር!፡ ብህጹጽ ህዝባዊ ባይቶ ይቑም!። 

ይኣክል ሙሉኽ  ዜጋ  ምዃን! ይኣክል ኣምልኾ ንውልቀ መላኺ! ይኣክል ኣምልኾ ንጠላሚ! ይኣክል ኣምልኾ ንሽፍታ! ይኣክል መቕዘፍትን፡ጭውያን! ይኣክል ምፍልላይ! ሉኡላውነት ሃገርና ይተሓሎ! እሱራትና ይፈትሑ!

ክብርን ዝኽርን ንስዉኣት! ዓወት ንውጹዕ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ!  

ደለይቲ ፍትሒ ከተማ ካስል/ከባብን ካስል/ጀርመን

ዕለት 13/04/2019

April 16, 2019 News, Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat

Source: Mixed Migration Quarterly

Summary: Ending the “state of war” between Ethiopia and Eritrea has changed very little. The exodus from Eritrea continues, but they are not reaching Europe. Just 492 people arrived in Italy via the Central Mediterranean route, which is the route most frequently used by refugees and migrants from the Horn of Africa.

“As data shows that refugees and migrants from the region are still moving northwards towards Europe, this may suggest that increasing numbers are stranded along the way.”


MigrationIt was with much anticipation – following an announcement in June 2018 that Eritrea and Ethiopia had agreed to end the two-decade long “state of war” between the two countries and resume friendly relations, including the reopening of border points – that the humanitarian community expected to see a change in cross-border displacement dynamics.

Forced military conscription, often justified by the Eritrean government as a necessary defence measure during the hostilities, remains one of the primary drivers of migration for both Eritrean children and adults. To date, the Eritrean government has not made any changes to the duration of national conscription and it remains as service for an indefinite period.

Renewed concerns have emerged surrounding reports that the EU is backing a road-building project that will use National Service conscripts, who critics argue are “forced labour” and are recruited for an indefinite period. The EU has stated that it will increase the pay rates of the national service recruits while still upholding their human rights.

While UNHCR projects that the Eritrean refugee caseload in Ethiopia will go down to 123,841 by the end of 2019 (from 173,879 at the end of 2018), figures in the final quarter of 2018 suggest that the opening of borders between the two countries actually resulted in an influx of Eritreans crossing over into Ethiopia with UNHCR approximating that the average daily rates of arrivals was 180 individuals – up from 50.

By the end of 2018, there were over 1,700 refugees registered at Endabaguna Reception Center awaiting transfer to the camps with an average daily rate of 390 individuals across all camps in Ethiopia. Family reunification was cited highly as one of the reasons for the influx, and anecdotal reports suggest that the high levels of arrivals have continued into the first quarter of this year.

Furthermore, interviews conducted with Eritrean refugees in refugee camps in northern Ethiopia indicate that a sizeable number of Eritrean youth arriving into Ethiopia opt to pursue onward movements from the camps to urban centres within, as well as outside of Ethiopia. In fact research indicates that the number of Eritreans crossing into Sudan has not reduced.

This is likely due to various reasons: the driving factors for migration for many Eritreans (forced conscription, political oppression) still remain; many Eritreans remain sceptical of the political changes between Ethiopia and Eritrea which some feel have not been transparent especially with rumours of security crackdowns in border towns; and the deterioration of living standards for many refugees living in over-populated camps in Tigray State.

Additionally, Sudan’s smuggling networks still remain operational and flexible allowing them to adapt to broader regional shifts including closure of old routes thereby making it easier for migrants to cross through.

The Government of Ethiopia continues to advance its ‘Out of Camp’ policy under the Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework which will seek to provide work permits to refugees, increase their enrolment in schools, provide access to irrigable land, facilitate local integration, earmark jobs in industrial parks for refugees and provide access to documentation to facilitate access to essential social services.

In addition to the continuation of factors that drive people out of Eritrea, this could be a pull factor for Eritreans to come to Ethiopia once rolled out. Meanwhile, government representatives from both countries held high level meetings in January 2019 to discuss the regularisation of trade and transport relations between the two States.

Arrivals in Europe & East African refugees and migrants in Libya

According to UNHCR, the total number of arrivals in Europe between January and March 2019 was 12,408 persons. Reports show that the number of irregular entries into the EU are at the lowest level in five years. Just 492 people arrived in Italy via the Central Mediterranean route, which is the route most frequently used by refugees and migrants from the Horn of Africa.

While a subdued level of movement is typical during the first quarter due to adverse weather conditions, this represents a significant drop in number of arrivals into Italy from 5,945 over the same period in 2018. Refugees and migrants from the Horn of Africa accounted for just 44 of the arrivals into Italy in the first quarter of 2019, representing less than 9 percent – a large difference from numbers at the peak of European sea arrivals in 2016, with more than 40,000 arrivals from the Horn of Africa.

As data shows that refugees and migrants from the region are still moving northwards towards Europe, this may suggest that increasing numbers are stranded along the way.

As at the end of March 2019, there were 8,728 Eritrean, 3,680 Somali, 1,252 Ethiopian and 156 South Sudanese refugees and asylum seekers in Libya. Measures by EU-supported Libyan coastguards to intercept and return boats departing from the Libyan coast and efforts to repatriate irregular migrants continued, possibly also contributing to the reduction in arrival figures in Europe.

ግዜ ንሓደ እንዳተቐበለ፡ ደሓር ነቲ ዝተቐበሎ ኣፋንዩ ካልእ ቀዳምነት ሒዙ እዩ ጉዕዘኡ ዝቕጽል። ኣብቲ መስርሕ ብደረጃ ዓለም ዝረኣዩ ምዕባለታት ኣለዉ፡ በብኸባቢኡ ዝምዕብሉ ሰብ ተራ ዛዕባታት ከኣ ኣለዉ። ከባቢና ከኣ ውዑይ ምቅይያራት ዝረኣየሉ ኩርናዕ እዩ። ርሑቕ ከይከድና እቲ ብቱኒዝያ ዝጀመረ ደሓር “ናይ ዓረብ ጽድያ” ዝብል ስም ዝተዋህቦ ናይ ለውጢ ማዕበል፡ ብቱኒዝያን ብሊብያን ኣቢሉ ናብ ግብጽን የመንን ምስተላብዐ ንኣልጀርያን ሱዳንን እውን ብጐቦ ዓይኑ ክርእየ ጸኒሑ። ናብ ኢትዮጵያ እውን ፍልይ ዝበለ ኣገባብን መልክዕን ሒዙ ተገማጊሙ። ኣብዚ ኩሉ ተርእዮታት፡ ዘይጐነጻዊ ኣገባብ ቃልሲ፡ ብትሑት ዋጋ ሓያል ለውጥን ህዱእ ቀጻልነትን ከረጋግጽ ከም ዝኽእል ዝተረጋገጸሉ ተመኩሮ እዩ። በቲ ካልእ ገጹ ከኣ፡ እቲ ከቢድ ሓላፍነት ለውጢ ምምጻእ ዘይኮነ፡ ነቲ ለውጢ ከተቐጽል ምኽኣልን ዘይምኽኣልን ምዃኑ ኣብዚ ተመኩሮ ተራእዩ እዩ።

ኣብዚ ዝሓለፈ ዓመት ብፍላይ ነቶም ቀንዲ ዝምልከተና፡ ኣብ መንጎ ኤርትራን ኢትዮጵያን ዝተጋህደ ዘይግሉጽነት ዝዓብለሎ ምሕዳስ ዝምድና፡ በቲ ሓደ ወገን፡ ጉጅለ ህግደፍ ምስ ናይ ስግር ባሕሪ ጐረባብትና ብዘይግሉጹነት ኣብ ንኤርትራዊ ልኡላውነትና ዝደናደን ሓደገኛ ውዕላት ምፍጣሩ ካልእ ኣዛራቢ ዛዕባታት ነይሮምን ጌና’ውን ኣለዉ። ኮታ ኩሎም እዞም ምዕባለታት ዋላ’ኳ ህግዲፍ ድንን ኢሉ ነቲ ሓቂ ከስሕቶም እንተፈተነ ከከም ርሕቀቶምን ቅርበቶም ንኤርትራዊ ጉዳይና ብቐጥታን ብተዘዋዋርን ክጸልውዎ ዝጸንሑን ዘለዉን እዮም።

ወዮ በዓል ኣቶ ኢሳይያስ ኣብቲ ዘለዎ ጠጠው ክብለሎም ክምህለልሉ ዝጸንሑ መራሺ ናይ ለውጢ ማዕበል መዓልቱ ቆጺሩ፡ እነሆ ናብ ኣልጀርያን ጐረቤትና ሱዳንን ደበኽ ኢሉ፡ ናይ ጎደቦና እዋናዊ  ኣጀንዳ ኮይኑ። እዚ ማዕበልዚ ኣብ ሱዳን ጥራይ ጠጠው ዘይብልን ናብ ኤርትራ ዝልሕምን ምዃኑ ዘጠራጥር ኣይኮነን። እዚ ናይ ለውጢ ማዕበል ናይ ብሓቂ ለውጢ ንክኸውን ጽኑዓትን ውዱባትን ዋናታት የድልይዎ። ኣድማዕነቱን ቀጻልነቱን ከኣ ብትብዓት፡ ጽንዓትን ኣርሒቕካ ምሕሳብን ናይዞም ዋናታቱ ዝውሰን’ዩ። ጭቡጥ ዋና እንተዘይረኺቡ ግና ከም ናይ ሊብያ፡ ሱርያን የመንን መዕንደሪ ናይ ግዳም ሓይልታትን ተለኣኽቶምን ይኸውን። ሱዳናውያን ቅድሚ ሒደት ኣዋርሕ ብጠንቂ ምውሳኽ ዋጋ ሕብስትን ነዳድን ዝወልዕዎ ናይ ለውጢ ሽግ ንከይቅህም ብዘካየድዎ ቀጻሊ ትንፋስ ዘይህብ ድፍኢት ነቲ ብፕረሲደንት ብዑመር ሓሰን ኣልበሽር ዝምራሕ ወጻዒ መንግስቲ ኣንበርኪኽምዎ። እቲ ቁጠዐ ናይ ናህሪ ዋጋ ሕብስትን ነዳድን ጥራይ ዘይኮነ ብቐንዱ ውጽኢት ናይ 30 ዓመታት ወጽዓ እኩብ ድምር እዩ።

ሱዳናውያን ክሳብ ሕጂ በጺሐምዎ ዘለዉ ደረጃ ክምዘን እንከሎ፡ ካብቲ ኣብ ዝሓለፈ ዓመታት ኣብ ከባብና ዝተራእየ ናይ ዘይጐነጻዊ ኣገባብ ለውጥታት ተመኩሮ ብዙሕ ከም ዝተማህሩ ምርዳእ ይከኣል። ንኣብነት ኣብ መንጎ ላዕለዎት ኣዘዝቲ ሰራዊትን ሲቪል ናይ ለውጢ ሓይልታትን ብጎቦ ዓይኒ ምርእኣዮም ካብ ተመኩሮ ግብጻውያን ዝተማህሩ ይመስሉ። ክንድቲ ነቲ ወጻዒ ጉጅለ ንምእላይ ዘርኣይዎ ብዝኾነ ብዙሕነት ናይ ዘይምፍልላይ ጽንዓቶም፡ እቲ ለውጢ ምስ መጸ፡ ምምሕዳሩ ብዝምልከት ዝነበሮም ውዱብ ምድላው ትሑት ምንባሩ ከኣ ንዕዘብ ኣለና። ነዚ ኣቐዲምካ ናይ ዘይምድላው ሃጓፍ መሊእካ፡ ካብቶም ነዚ ለውጢ ክጭውይዎ ዝደናደኑ ናይቲ ዝወደቐ ስርዓት ናፈቕቲ ከተንድሕኖ ምኽኣል ቀሊል ከምዘይከውን ከኣ ንርእዮ ዘለና እዩ። እዚ ክበሃል እንከሎ ግና፡ ለውጢ ኣረጋጊጽካ ኣብ ዘተኣማምን ዲሞክራስያዊ ምምሕዳር ንምብጻሕ እቲ ጉዕዞ ቀሊል ከምዘይኮነ ብምዝንጋዕ ኣይኮነን።

ጉዳይ ሱዳናውያን ጉዳይናውን’ኳ እንተኾነ፡ እቲ ቀንዲ ዋኒናስ ናትና ኤርትራዊ ጉዳይ እዩ። ኣብዚ ዘለናዮ እዋን ጉዳይና ካብ ጉዳይ ጐረባብትና ሱዳን ኮነ ኢትዮጵያ ፈሊኻ ዝርአ ኣይኮነን። ከምኡ ስለ ዝኾነ ኢና ከኣ ጉዳይዞም ጐረባብትና ክለዓል እንከሎ ኣእዛና እንጸሉ። ምስ ሱዳን ዘለና ምትእስሳር ከኣ ታሪኻውን ቃልሳውን እዩ። ዓወት ሱዳናውያን ዓወትና እዩ ጥራይ ዘይኮ፡ነ ብፍላይ ኣብዚ እዋንዚ ዓወትና ክረጋገጽ  ኣዝዩ ዕዙዝ ጽልዋ ዘለዎ እዩ።  ዲክታተር ኢሳይያስ ከምቲ ኣብ ጉዳይ ኢትዮጵያ ዘርእዮ ዘሎ ጠብሎቕሎቕ፡ ሱዳናውያን ለውጦም ከበርዕን ኢዱ ከይሰደሎም ክጥንቀቕሉ ይግበኦም።

ካብዚ ሱዳናውያን ኣሕዋት ዝኣትዉዎ ዘለዉ ምዕራፍ ክንመሃረሉ ዝግበኣና ብዙሕ ተረኽቦታት ኣሎ። ሱድናውያን ናይ “ክፋያ” ወፍሪ ሒዞም ናብዚ ኣትየምዎ ዘለዉ መድረኽ ክኣትዉ እንከለዉ፡ ቅድሚት ዘምጽእዎ መወልዒ ዛዕባታት እንታይ ምዃኖም ተጠቒሶም ኣለዉ። ንሕና ከም መቐጸልታ ናይቲ በብእዋኑ ከነልዕሎ ዝጸናሕና ናብዚ ናይ ሎሚ “ይኣክል” ማዕቢሉ ዘሎ ሕራነ ክንመጽእ ዝድርኸና ዛዕባ ምስ ዋጋ ሕብስትን ነዳድን ዝመጣጠን ዘይኮነ፡ “ወጽዓ” ዝብል ቃል ዘይገልጾ፡ ናብ ግህሰት ልኡላውነት ሃገርን ብርሰት ህዝብን ዝደናደን ናይ ምህላውን ዘይምህላውን ከቢድ ሕቶ ዘልዕል ዘሎ እዩ። ስለዚ ክብደት ወጽዓና ካብ ናይ ሱዳናውያን ኣዝዩ ዝኸበደ እዩ። ሱዳንውያን ነቲ ኩለመዳያዊ ብዙሕነቶም ብምምዝማዝ ንምክፍፋሎም ዝተሃቀነ መኪቶም፡ ብመጠበሪ መብጸዓታትን ጽገናታትን ወጻዕቲ ከይተዓሸዉ፡ ኣብቲ ንኹሎም ዘርበሖም ኣትኪሎም እሞ ንወጻዕቲ ትንፋስ ብዘይህብ ቅልጣፈ ደፊኦም ኣብ ናይ መጀመርያ ምዕራፍ ለውጢ ክበጽሑ ምኽኣሎም ክንቀስሞ ዝግበኣና ኣገዳሲ ተመኩሮ እዩ። ካብ ሕጂ ንድሕሪት ኣብ ዘሎ ጉዕዘኦም’ውን ብዙሕ ንመሃረሉን ንጐርሓሉን ተረኽቦታት ከጋጥመና እዩ። እዚ ከበሃል እንከሎ ግና፡ ጉዳይና ምስ ጉዳይ ሱዳናውያን ኣዝዩ ዝመሳሰል እምበር፡ ሓደ ዓይነት ስለ ዘይኮነ፡ በቲ ሓደ ወገን ነቲ ተመኩሮኦም ናብ ኤርትራዊ ኩነታት ናይ ምቕናዩ፡ በቲ ካልእ ወገን ከኣ ናይ ካለኦት ተመሃሮ ጥራይ ከይኮና፡ ናትና ኤርትራዊ ናይ ለውጢ ቅዲ ክንቅይስ ይግበኣና።

ብሓፈሻ ካብተን ብዘይጐነጻዊ ኣገባብ ናይ ለውጢ ቃልሲ ዝሓልፋ ዘለዋ ሃገራት፡ ብፍላይ ከኣ ካብዘን ዳሕረዎት ኣልጀርያን ሱዳንን ክንመሃር ዝገበኣና ንሕና ናይ ለውጢ ሓይልታት ጥራይ ክንከውን ኣይመተገብአን። ወዮደኣ ተማሂሩ ዘጽንዕን ጥዑይ ሓሳብ ዘብቁል ኣእምሮኡ መኺኑ እዩ እምበር፡ ኢሳይያስ’ውን ጽባሕ ብእዝኑ ካብ ዝውጠጥ ነዚ ከቢብዎ ዘሎ ናይ ለውጢ ሃዋህው ክመሃረሉ መተገበአ። ሰራዊት ኤርትራ እቲ ቀንዲ ነዚ ኩነታት ክመሃረሉን ብህዝባዊ ወገናውነት ሰራዊት ሱዳን ቅዱስ ቅንኢ ክሓድሮ ዝግበኦ ኣካል’ዩ። ምኽንያቱ እቲ ሰራዊት ሱዳን ንህዝቡ ዝተበጀዎ፡ ሰራዊ ኤርትራ ኣብዚ ወሳኒ ግዜ ንህዝቡ እንተነፊግዎ ኣይኮነንዶ ንዓኡ ንዓና’ውን ከም ኤርትራውያን ዘሕፍር ታሪኽ’ዩ  ክኸውን።

ስለዚ ወጽዓና ካብ ወጽዓ ሱዳናውያን ዝኸበደ ካብ ኮነ፡ ካብቲ ወጽዓ ክንወጽእ ንኸፍሎ ዋጋ ካብቲ ናይ ሰዳናውያን እንተኸበደ’ውን ክንከፍሎ ግድን’ዩ። ምኽንያቱ ካብ ተመኩሮ ዕዉታት እንዳተመኮርካ ካብ ምቕጻል ካልእ ኣቋራጭ ናብ ራህዋ ዘብጽሕ መንገዲ ስለ ዘየለ።

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